Further examples of applications of our biophysical techniques can be obtained through links below to Adobe Acrobat .pdf format versions of published articles and posters or talks we have presented at various meetings. Our review article about SEC-MALS is also included. These are listed in reverse chronological order.


[Note: because of the high interest in monoclonal antibodies, items containing data for mAbs are marked with this symbol: Y ]


"New Approaches to Investigating the Self-Association and Colloidal Stability of Protein Pharmaceuticals at High Concentrations", Philo, J.S. & Maluf, N.K., poster, WCBP 2015


"Studying Reversible Self-Association of Biopharmaceuticals using AUC and Light Scattering ", Philo, J.S., invited talk, Higher Order Structure meeting 2014


"Reversible Association of a Monoclonal Antibody Studied by Concentration-Gradient Light Scattering (CG-MALS) and Sedimentation Velocity (SV-AUC)" , Philo, J.S., poster, Higher Order Structure meeting, 2013


"The critical role of mobile phase composition in size exclusion chromatography of protein pharmaceuticals". Arakawa, T., Ejima, D., Li, T., and Philo, J. S. (2010). J. Pharm. Sci. 99, 1674-1692. [A PDF file is available but by request only (use the Contact form, and be specific about which article you want).]


The June 2009 issue of Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology (vol. 10 #4) contains 6 articles and an editorial by APL staff on mechanisms of protein aggregation, aggregate detection, and aggregate prevention. [PDF files are available, but by request only (use the Contact form , and be specific about which articles you want).]


"Challenges in measuring comparability of aggregation and conformation for biosimilars (and often innovator products too!)", poster, WCBP 2009


"Focus on aggregation: types, causes, characterization, and impact", invited talk, Comparability for Biotherapeutics, Berlin June 2007


[Note: this 3-part series below is a good starting point for those wanting to know more about analytical methods for aggregates]


"Aggregation analysis of therapeutic proteins, part 3: Principles and optimization of field-flow fractionation (FFF)". Arakawa, T., Philo, J. S., Ejima, D., Sato, H., and Tsumoto, K. (2007). Bioprocess International 5 (10), 52-70.


"Aggregation analysis of therapeutic proteins, part 2: Analytical ultracentrifugation and dynamic light scattering". Arakawa, T., Philo, J. S., Ejima, D., Tsumoto, K., and Arisaka, F. (2007). Bioprocess International 5 (4), 36-47.


"Aggregation analysis of therapeutic proteins, part 1: General aspects and techniques for assessment ". Arakawa, T., Philo, J. S., Ejima, D., Tsumoto, K., and Arisaka, F. (2006). Bioprocess International 4 (10), 42-49.


Monitoring the homogeneity of adenovirus preparations (a gene therapy delivery system) using analytical ultracentrifugation. Berkowitz, S. A. and Philo, J. S. (2007). Anal. Biochem. 362, 16-37. [A PDF file is available but by request only (use the Contact form, and be specific about which article you want).]


"Is Any Measurement Method Optimal for All Aggregate Sizes and Types?", Philo, J.S. (2006) AAPS Journal. 8(3): E564-E571.


"Analyzing Aggregates by Sedimentation Velocity and Light Scattering" , invited talk, AAPS National Biotechnology Meeting, 2006


"Some Unusual Aggregation Phenomena in Recombinant Proteins", poster, WCBP 2006


"Sensitivity and Reproducibility of Protein Aggregate Analysis by Sedimentation Velocity", poster, WCBP 2005


"Analyzing Aggregates of Different Sizes and Types: SEC vs. Analytical Ultracentrifugation vs. Light Scattering", invited talks, WCBP and IBC Well Characterized Biologicals, 2004


"Measuring Comparability of Conformation, Heterogeneity, and Aggregation with Circular Dichroism and Analytical Ultracentrifugation" , invited talk, State of the Art Methods for the Characterization of Biological Products and Assessment of Comparability, NIH, June 2003


"Characterizing the aggregation and conformation of protein therapeutics", Philo, J. S. (2003), Amer. Biotech. Lab. 21, 22-26.


"Limitations and Advantages in Assessing Adenovirus Homogeneity by Laser Light Scattering and Analytical Ultracentrifugation - Measuring the Aggregation of Large Biopharmaceuticals", invited talk, Steve Berkowitz (Biogen-Idec) and John Philo, WCBP 2003


"Some Biophysical Tools for Demonstrating Comparability of Conformation and Aggregation", poster, WCBP 2002


"Kinetic and Thermodynamic Analysis of Thermal Unfolding of Recombinant Erythropoietin", Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 65, 121-1327, 2001


"Online Size-Exclusion High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Light Scattering and Differential Refractometry Methods to Determine Degree of Polymer Conjugation to Proteins and Protein-Protein or Protein-Ligand Association States", B.S. Kendrick, B.S. Kerwin, B. Chang, and J.S. Philo (2001) Anal. Biochem. 299, 136-146


"New Software Methods Enhance Sedimentation Velocity Analysis of Protein Aggregation and Conformation", poster, WCBP 2001


Y"Analysis of Aggregation, Stability, and Lot Comparability by Sedimentation Velocity", poster, WCBP 2000


"Effects of Additives on Reversibility of Thermal Unfolding", poster, WCBP 2000


"Size-Exclusion Chromatography with On-Line Light-Scattering, Absorbance, and Refractive Index Detectors for Studying Proteins and Their Interactions" [review article, 170+ citations] J. Wen, T. Arakawa and J. S. Philo (1996) Anal. Biochem. 240, 155–166.


Other examples can, of course, also be found among the articles on our publication lists: Arakawa publicationsPhilo publications